Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is one of the software automation processes that directly convert the product drawing or the object into the code design that enables the machine to manufacture the product. It is used in various machines like lathes and milling machines for the product manufacturing purposes. It allows the computer work instructions to communicate directly to the manufacturing machines.

The mechanism of CAM developed from the Computer Numerical Machines (CNC) in the early 1950s. These systems were directed by a set of coded instructions in a punched paper tape. The proposal to develop the first numerically controlled machine was commissioned to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from the US Air Force in the year 1949. The entire proposed idea of developing this machine was demonstrated in the year 1952.

The motivation factor in developing these kinds of numerically automated machines involves the expensive costs in manufacturing the complex curved geometries in 2D or 3D constraints mechanically. The development of these machines considers the factors like easier programming in CAM and easy storage of programs. A program can be changed easily and avoid manual errors. Numerically controlled machines are safer to operate, and the complex geometry comes at a reasonable price.

James T. Parsons proposed the concept of the numerical control operations during the year of 1948. In 1950, the MIT servo mechanism lab developed the Numerical Control (NC) milling project. The remaining program parts were released in the later period of 1952 along with the first successful demo version. After 1955, major companies in the industry developed their own machine designs.

IBMs Automatic Tool Changer in the year 1955, G & Ls first production of the skin-miller in the year 1957, and the machining center developed by K & T have all been considered to be major developments to promote the technology with more benefits. CAD drafting and the sculptured surfaces were developed in the year 1965; 7,700 NCs were also installed during the same year.

During the year 1967, the concept of developing the CNC machine was proposed. The existence and the major development of the CAD/CAM machines evolved during the year 1972. 3D CAM/CAD systems were introduced in 1976. Expert CAM/CAD systems were developed in the year 1989. The major development of the CAM systems provides you with easier manufacturing of objects with high efficiency.

A common problem for smokers or friends of smokers who allow smoking in their home is removing the smell and second hand smoke from their home. Although its best to smoke outside if you insist on not quitting tobacco, you may have a loved one who can't or won't smoke outside, or the desire to better protect friends and family against the dangers of second hand smoke. By using a smoke eater in your home, you can better protect your loved ones against the dangers of second hand smoke and make your house smell better too.

Smoke Eaters use a variety of technology to remove smoke from your home. There is a variety of technology used in the air purifiers on the market today from ionic air cleanerrs to HEPA filter-based models, to combinations of the two technoologies. When you look for a smoke eater for your home, you will want to check facts such as the room rating in square feet of the unit, the type(s) of filters required, and frequency of cleaning required to keep the unit running at optimal capacity. The following are some of the poular smoke eaters on the market for use in the home.

BPA SmokeMuncher XL Deluxe Smoke Eater

The BPA Smoke Muncher XL deluxe model is a high quality constructed product. The smoke cleaner is designed to require little maintence and is designed to sit on the floor but can be mounted on the wall. It does require a periodic filter replacement. The unit is rated to cover a 250-350 square foot room and has a sealed air chamber design. You can also choose an option for the unit that has a 500 CFM motor which will cover a 500 square foot room.

AQE X-400 Smoke Eater

The AQE X-400 Smoke Eater is designed to never have its main filters replaced and is designed for installation in your room's ceiling. The grills of the smoke eater are designed to sit flush with the ceiling and to remin hidden in your home. The unit has an optional odor controlling carbon that you can purchase but is not required. The unit is designed to use an electrostatic precipitator primary filter that can cover 250-350 square feet and is suitable for a small room or office space.

Austin Air HealthMate Jr. Smoke Eater

The Austin Air HealthMate Jr smoke eater is one of the lowest cost models on the market. It uses HEPA filtration and is designed to cover up to 100 square feet. General feedback on the model is that it is good for a small coverage requirement, but does not have the capacity for covering a large room or a small room that has more than the odd cigarette smoked in it.

What you need is a computer task chair; one that is designed specifically so that you can sit behind your computer for long periods of time and still be able to enjoy working without the discomfort.

These days, computers are just a part of everyday life. You use computers at work and you use them at home. In fact, if you are a student, you may even use computers more than everyone else. We use computers to study, write down all our assignments, research for information so that we can type in all our ideas; the list can go on and on when it comes to students using computers. This makes it all the more important for students to incorporate the use of computer task chairs.
The promise is that use of these computer chairs will provide more efficiency when it comes to work and even play.

So what are the benefits?

This is the first question that comes to mind. After all, buying a computer chair is an investment and the better one that you get, the more expensive it may be. But price should not be the issue at all, especially when you considering the following:

Proper spine alignment - Computer chairs will allow you to balance yourself properly as you are seated for long periods of time. These chairs will make sure that you get the perfect posture at all times so that you won't end up with back problems in the long term. So, basically, these chairs can actually improve the condition of your spine instead of worsen it.

Positioning - A good computer chair is one that will not make you change positions so often. Many chairs will have you shifting in them just so that you can get that perfect spot. A chair for computers will make sure that you get that spot every time so you won"t move around so much. In other words, comfort is a given.

Fitness "" Believe it or not but you can actually get fit on a chair for your computer. Actually, it will keep you fit because it will allow your blood to flow freely. There are many chairs that will not allow your blood to flow and you will also find that it is hard to stretch as well. Computer task chairs will make sure you are able to stretch whenever you need to and have your blood flow naturally as if you were standing up or walking about. Of course, every now and then you will need to get up and actually walk.

Balance "" Body shifting often means that your computer task chair is not balanced properly; this could be blamed on poor construction. Chairs for computers are built for the task and they make sure that you are perfectly balanced no matter what position you take as you are seated in them. Balanced seating gives you a better sense of balance and your muscles will react better as well.

Energy "" Ever sat in a chair and found that you lost energy in it? This is usually because you lose your energy just trying to get comfortable. Computer task chairs will make sure that you are comfortable the second you sit in them and that means you have better reserve energy for all the other tasks that you need to complete.

Top Tips And Advice About Desktop Computers

Your search for a computer starts right here. What step you should take? What should you searching for? What is right and wrong in this selection process? This article provides information about buying a great computer.

Always be sure to have software to protect your desktop. You could get a virus has infiltrated your computer without it. This software can allow hackers to steal information and damage your private data. There are several programs available that will automatically scan and repair your desktop.

Find people who is getting rid of their desktop away. Many more people decide to purchase a laptop and will sell their desktop at a very reasonable price. These computers are usually in fine shape, but before you make an offer, make sure.

If you have found that your desktop is running slow you can start by doing a boot check. Run "ms config" from the "start" menu. This gives the ability to look through all the programs are being opened at start up. If you see any programs in the given list that are not ones you need, click them so they do not begin when you boot your computer. This will give your system run faster.

Try to buy the desktop computer that has the minimum features you need. Many people try to buy models that go beyond their price range with lots of extra features that they don't need or need.

Measure how much space you plan to place your computer. Desktop computers come in many sizes based off of the brands and models that they are. You should know what size you buy according to that size.

Measure how much space where you plan on putting your new desktop computer will likely go. Desktop computers have varying sizes depending on what brand or model they are. You should make sure your computer will actually fit in the space you have.

Dust the interior of your computer weekly to have the system functioning at its best. This makes the fan will be able to operate well.

The computer you need depends on what you need it to do regularly. Gamers have different options on a computer than those who merely check email and surf the Internet.

Many computer manufacturers now limit the amount of information in a manual that come with their computers, they post it online. Make sure that the online information is sufficient so that you can always get the drivers and software downloads you need.

Don't become obsessed with finding the game of price drops. Some people start monitoring sales and deals when they are the best. But they don't do it anything about it thinking they will find a better deal that's better. Typically, the difference between great deals will be very slim, the price difference in the deals will be minimal, go for it.

In the past it was common for people to buy their monitor, printer, computer and printer together. Computer monitors are becoming increasingly hard to find because a lot of flat-screen televisions can do the same job. Keep in mind that your old keyboard and mouse will work.

Be really smart when shopping for a computer. You should know what you need your computer to do.You should figure out what computer that is the right performance level and that has a great price.

Going computer shopping can be downright scary for those who are uneducated on the process. Using the tips above can help make the shopping experience enjoyable. Nobody has to suffer the consequences having an inferior piece of equipment that may be obsolete in no time.

Many of you may encounter this common problem that your computer can't recognize your printer. When you connect it to the USB port on your computer, you may get an error message saying "USB Device Not Recognized". Once it occurs, the printer doesn't connect to the computer. In this article, I will tell you how to fix this issue that your computer can't recognize the printer and make printer work properly.

Firstly, try to use a simple way that many people often use. Unplug the printer from your computer, shut down your computer and remove it from power supply for several minutes. And then, attach the printer to the computer again. This traditional way aims at letting the motherboard get rebooted and clean up all of its caches. This simple way makes the motherboard reload drivers and the USB ports turn back to recognize your printer.

Secondly, plug your printer into the computer and see if it can be recognized by your computer. If not, try on another computer. If it works on another computer, this suggests that there may be some bugs in your Windows system. Sometimes, the errors of your Windows system may lead to the system can't detect the devices that are connected to it. For this, you should repair the bugs of your Windows system or get System Restore.

Thirdly, if none of above works, the issue could be with wrong installation of your printer driver or outdated or corrupted printer driver in your computer. The driver is the software connecting the hardware and the Windows system. If it's installed improperly or it's outdated or damaged, the Windows system can't detect and recognize the printer attached to it. To resolve these problems, you must download and install the latest printer driver to replace the outdated or damaged one.

On the basis of my long-term research, the most common reason of computer not recognizing printer issue is due to the errors of printer driver. There are 3 options to fix the errors of your printer driver. After uninstalling the old one, you can download it from your device manufacturer's website and install it, or reinstall it with an installation disk. However, the best way is to use driver update software, which can automatically download and install the latest driver for your printer in a few minutes. I hope my suggestions will help you successfully fix your computer not recognizing printer problems.

If your hair is fine and straight then you may have felt the frustration on working on your tresses for ages with a curling iron and either burning them or not obtaining the results you want. A curling iron that isnt designed to be used on fine hair wont offer you much in terms of styling, so what you have to do is find one that can provide you with the long-lasting results you desire.

If you want real texture and volume in your hair then avoid cheap curling irons with low quality materials. With a cheap curling iron you are more likely to curl the same lock of hair over and over because of failing to notice some results and this can often end in damaging the hair. Since fine hair is more vulnerable than other hair types, it needs extra care when being styled with heat tools. The delicate condition of the strands is one reason to choose a professional curling iron over an economic one, because the latter will only burn your locks, dry them out and produce frizz. A professional curling iron with high quality heating materials is the best thing for fine hair because not only can it produce the results you are looking for, it also helps conserve the health of your hair. Tourmaline and ceramic are excellent options for fine hair, but just make your you are buying a curling iron that uses these materials in pure form.

With ceramic, you can benefit a lot more since its the best material for hair types that are prone to damage. The moist heat can gently curl your hair while sealing the cuticles to retain moisture, creating super soft and ultra smooth curls that last well into the day. Not only that, but the general health and shine of your locks will be vastly improved. With the uniform heat distribution along the entire length of the barrel, your hair will be safe from hotspots and burning.

Fine hair doesnt require scorching temperatures to curl properly, so if youre looking for a model, find one that manages lower temperatures and safe heating technology so that the health of your tresses is maintained. Try the Karmin Salon Pro Clipless, it is suitable for all hair types and features tourmaline ceramic technology to let you style your fine hair securely and efficiently.

Information Technology Infrastructure Library generally referred to as ITIL is basically comprised of ideas and practices in order to carry out IT operations, IT service management and for the sake of the advancement of IT development. It was created by Central Computer and Telecommunication Agency (U.K) because of the increase in reliance on IT for fulfilling business needs.

Information System Examination Board or ISEB is an association, which provides the ITIL Certification. It came into being in 1967 and is presently running under the patronage of British Computer Society. It trains the representatives for ITIL foundation certificate. ISEB aspires to improve the standard of industry, to support career development and give the employers a competitive advantage by offering them industry-acknowledged qualification, which evaluates proficiency and performance in several aspects of Information System, IS.

EXIN is a Dutch-based self-governing company, which offers ITIL certification. EXIN's key purpose is to make improvements in the Information Communication Technology, ICT area, and create ICT experts by examinations and ITIL certification. It takes care of the educational needs of those who wish to qualify for ITIL certification, and arranges examinations in IT field.

The individuals must be well prepared for the test. Some ITIL certifications demand work experience in the relevant area, because it makes the course work easier to follow, which otherwise is quite difficult to understand. There are three levels to get ITIL certification.

a. ITIL foundation certification in IT service management
b. Practitioner certificate in IT service management
c. ITIL Service Manager Certification

ITIL foundation: it is the very first and basic level of ITIL qualifications. It involves all the basic information related to ITIL Service support and delivery. The important terms and terminology and all the 'how' and 'why' of ITIL are studied extensively at this level. As mentioned earlier it is a basic requirement for the next two levels of ITIL certification.

ITIL Practitioner: the qualification of this level decides how well you know and can confidently apply particular methods in IT Service Management. It is considered as valuable evidence of the practical knowledge of a person in some areas of Service Management.

ITIL Service Manager Certification: this is the highest level of ITIL qualifications and is meant for knowledgeable and well informed professionals who regularly engage in Service Management activities. A certified professional is considered to be skillful in ITIL, both in terms of theory and practice.

Now that you have made the decision to turn an alcove in the den into a work area, what exactly the next step? Planning if you should buy a desktop, laptop, or tablet is your next decision.

Desktops are the original personal computer. The major benefit of desktops is that they can have the best components. Not only that, but the hardware is typically easily accessible, so you can upgrade it later on, rather than shopping for another new desktop. You could upgrade the processor, or add a hard drive. Desktops also often have six or more USB ports, whereas laptops and tablets only have two or three. The most powerful CPUs and GPUs must have large cooling fans, and these will only fit in a desktop. Desktops also can display to numerous monitors. The drawback of desktops is that they are not portable. They are designed to be stationary. If graphics design or gaming are your thing, then a desktop is positively a great selection. Good desktop brands are Apple, CybertronPC, and Toshiba.

Laptop computers are smaller and more easily portable than traditional desktops. In the past they had been slower than desktops, but recently, laptops have been designed to be just about as robust as desktop computers, for most everything but the most power hungry applications. One drawback of laptops is their small size, and CPUs installed in them operate at low voltages. What this means is that laptops do not have the room for large fans that are essential to use the largest processors. Expect to find a 5400 rotational hard drive in a laptop computer. Additionally, there are fewer USB ports. The components are precisely installed, and swapping components after the fact will be challenging. Some laptop models allow you to increase the RAM. The main advantage of a laptop is that it is portable. You will be able to transport your work with you. Excellent laptop manufacturers are HP and Microsoft.

Tablets may seem like laptops without keyboards, and in some instances, that is indeed what they are. With the widespread availability of touch screens, tablets are now available. One of the options you have is to get an electronic device that is both a laptop and a tablet in one machine. Or you can opt for a removable keyboard for numerous tablets. Tablets are first and foremost portable, and light. They are usually able to port their screen image to full size monitors also. Tablets aren't typically considered as the primary choice for an office computer. This couldn't be further from reality because tablets are very powerful now. As an example, you can use email. You can also give presentations. If you are a retailer, you can use your tablet like a cash register, and scan credit cards. There are three main operating systems for tablets, one of which is Windows. Excellent tablet manufacturers are Google and Acer.

All home offices require printers. Decide the ratio of black and white to color pages that you will be making. Also take into account if you expect to be often printing photos. Does your home office necessitate a separate copier and scanner, or would you prefer a single machine that does all these things? Laser printers are the speediest and have the highest quality printouts. If you print in black and white, this is a good choice. Color laser printers cost a lot. Because of this, you will want to select one only if high quality color printouts are essential to your success. If you use color on a dedicated basis, and want to keep the costs low, consider an ink jet printer. You can often find them marketed as an all-in-one office machine, complete with a scanner, copier, and fax machine. Photo printers make satisfactory prints. The price of the ink and the photo paper are costly, however. Their suitability can compete with mail order services. Good printer vendors are Brother, Konica Minolta, and Ricoh.

The heavy PST (Personal Storage Table) file size can be an open invitation to the Outlook data disaster. Moreover, the bulky file size can slow down the performance of MS Outlook. Whenever the PST files cross the 2GB limitation then they become corrupt. To avoid data damage a user can split Outlook PST files with the help of 2GB truncation tool (or Pst2gb.exe tool) a data recovery software. This Microsoft based utility deletes the un-required space from the PST files.

Error 0x80040116 is the most frequently occurring error in MS Outlook. It appears onto the screen when the PST files of MS Outlook exceed the 2GB limitation. This error can be rectified with the help of 2GB truncation tool. It can be downloaded from the Microsoft Support Site. When the download finishes move the 2gb152.exe files to another file folder - where the following program files reside:






Now open the Pst2gb.exe program and browse the corrupt PST files in it. Create the truncated files by specifying the name & location for saving them. Enter the amount of PST data which can be compacted.

Note: It would be better to truncate at least 20 to 25 MB PST data. A user can truncate the data by 15% if 20 to 25 MB of data is easily truncated.

Now use the Inbox Repair Tool or Scanpst.exe tool for fixing the error 0x80040116. It is a Microsoft based utility that can scan the PST and OST files. A user can search for the scanpst.exe tool in files and folders mode of search box.

After opening the Scanpst.exe tool browse the PST files in it. Now click repair option for scanning the files. The system prompts to repair the files if it deducts any error. Click the repair command and Select OK when the repair process gets over. Try opening the files in MS Outlook.

The drawbacks of repairing the files with the help of 2GB truncation and Inbox Repair Tool
First of all using the 2GB truncation and Inbox Repair Tool is very difficult. A person should have a lot of technical competence for using these tools.

For using the 2GB truncation tool one should assure plenty of disk space. Another drawback of this tool is that it deletes the important files from MS Outlook. There is also no guarantee that the Inbox Repair Tool would repair the corrupted files.

What the experts suggest?

If after using these tools the error 0x80040116 has not been rectified then it is the time to use a specifically Data Recovery Software. The best example is Kernel for PST Split. It is the best solution to split the Outlook PST files. It keeps the PST data intact while compacting the file size. It very well supports Windows 7, Vista, 2003, XP, 2000, 95, 98 operating systems and Outlook 2000 above versions.

Ransomware itself is a type of malware that seeking financial gain by holding data from the victim's computer is infected. The perpetrator then demands a ransom in exchange for access to the documents on the victim. "Obviously, it's become a major threat in the future. The problem ransomware itself is not really new at all. We've seen the first ransomware in 1989. This is an attack where the victims a sum of money because their device is locked remotely," said Vitaly in the event Kaspersky Lab cyber Security Weekend at the Hotel Intercontinental, Jimbaran, Bali, Saturday (08/10/2016).

In this event, Vitaly gives an overview on how to ensnare his victims ransomware and revealed a number of cases ransomware high levels, one of which is the case CoinVault in 2015 and infected more than 1,000 Windows-based computers in more than 20 countries.

So serious threat of ransomware, this year, Kaspersky Lab join the Dutch National Police, Europol and Intel Security making initiative which they called No More Ransom are addressed in the site

This is the online portal to inform the public about the dangers of ransomware and helps users who are victims to get more of their data without having to pay a ransom to cyber criminals. Some moves can be done to dispel Kaspersky ransomware as suggested below.

  1. Make sure that you always back up important files on a regular basis. Highly recommended to make two copies of backing up. The first stored in the cloud and placed in another physical storage devices such as portable hard drives, flash, additional laptops, and others.
  2. Never open a link or suspicious file attachments. Cyber criminals often distribute fake email messages that mimic email notifications from the online store store or bank, to lure users opening malicious links and malware spread. This method is called phishing.
  3. Link evil could have been sent by a friend on a social media or opponents play in online games whose accounts are infected. You should immediately ask in detail to them before opening links or files sent.
  4. Enable the option 'Show file extensions "on a Windows-based computer settings. This will make it easier to tell which files are potentially malicious. So you are going to be really vigilant to determine whether the file is really invoice.pdf.exe or invoice.pdf example.
  5. Update your operating system, browser, antivirus and other programs on a regular basis. Cyber criminals exploit vulnerabilities in the software tends to disrupt the system.
  6. Use program robust and reliable security to protect your system from ransomware. Especially for businesses, because they store customer data.